Plug-in electric vehicles ( PEV) use chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs for part or all of their onboard energy storage and, unlike hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), are off-vehicle charge capable (“OVCC”), which is to say they can be plugged in and have the capability to charge a battery from an off-vehicle electric energy source. Because of this, PEVs are sometimes referred to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV).
PEVs are generally divided into two categories: battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles ( PHEV).
BEVs are pure electric vehicles that utilize only electric motors and motor controllers for propulsion. BEVs have no onboard internal combustion engine (ICEs). BEVs range in size from scooters up to medium-duty trucks and full-size buses.
PHEVs, also sometimes referred to as extended-range electric vehicles (E-REV) use both electric motors and ICEs to provide motive power and generally have two forms of onboard energy storage, a battery pack and a conventional fuel such as gasoline.
Where and how can I recharge my plug-in electric vehicle?
PEVs can be charged by plugging into a standard 110 volt or 220 volt AC outlet (such as that used by an electric clothes dryer) either at your home or at electric charging stations located in your area. There are also plans to construct public fast-charging stations capable of delivering high voltage DC power to vehicles for charging that takes only 10-25 minutes.
PEV Charging Infrastructure
On August 5, 2009, Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec), was awarded a $99.8 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to embark on The EV Project. The Project officially was launched on October 1, 2009 and will last approximately 36 months. Over the course of the Project, approximately 11,210 PEV charging systems will be deployed in five strategic regions across the U.S., in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington.
The EV Project will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle use in diverse topographic and climatic conditions, evaluate the effectiveness of charge infrastructure, and conduct trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charge infrastructure. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to take the lessons learned from the deployment of these first 4,700 PEVs, and the charging infrastructure supporting them, to enable the streamlined deployment of the next 5,000,000 PEVs.
What are the incentives for electric vehicles?
Federal Tax Incentives: Tax credits for PEVs will range from between $2,500 to $7,500, with factors such as battery capacity determining how much owners would receive. Cars like the Nissan Leaf, due for release in December 2010, would be eligible for the maximum credit of $7,500. To meet the tax incentive's standards, a plug-in vehicle must have a battery with a minimum capacity of 5kWh, with an additional $417 of tax credit added for every Kilowatt-hour thereafter, which is how the Leaf is eligible for the maximum $7,500 limit with its 24 kWh battery pack.
For the latest federal tax credit information, go to this website: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/taxcenter.shtml. Once there, click on “Tax Credit for 2010” next to Electric Vehicles, then click on Notice 2009-89: New Qualified Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Credit, IRS, Nov. 30, 2009.
California PEV Rebates: On April 24, 2009, the California Air Resources Board adopted and approved the Air Quality Improvement Program guidelines (AQIP Guidelines) and funding for Fiscal Year 2009-10 (AQIP Funding Plan). One of the AQIP programs, the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project ( CVRP) is modeled after the successful Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program and will provide rebates for zero-emission vehicles ( ZEV), which include BEVs, PHEVs, and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The CVRP will encourage consumer adoption of these vehicles and seed the market for widespread commercialization of these advanced technology vehicles. The CVRP will provide rebates up to $5,000 for light-duty ZEVs and up to $20,000 foir commercial ZEVs.